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Modeling & texturing a Book...

هذا الموضوع : Modeling & texturing a Book... داخل السينما فوردي | Cinema4Dالتابع الي قسم البعد الثالث | 3D Programs : Modeling & texturing a Book... Cinema 4d Artist Anders Kjelberg aka cartesiuscreations has put together this handy little tutorial for ...

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    Modeling & texturing a Book...

    Modeling & texturing a Book...


    Cinema 4d Artist Anders Kjelberg aka cartesiuscreations has put together this handy little tutorial for The123d
    It covers modeling & texturing a book and its dust cover using, yes you guessed it, Cinema 4D :-) You can download the tutorial files here for FREE : c4d-file for XL 8.5 and the tex.zip file containing the textures ...!

    Related links ...

    www.cartesiuscreations.com The online portfolio of :: Anders Kjelberg ::
    email : cartesius@cartesiuscreations.com
    .................................................. .................................................. .................................................. .......................................
    Introduction By Anders Kjelberg :
    Time for another tutorial and this time we'll be modeling and texturing a book with a dust cover. I've already scanned all necessary textures for you so all you have to do is model the actual book (which, by the way, will be The Oxford Companion to English Literature, edited by Margaret Drabble (1986), a book I've had for some 15 years by now. Yes, I am that old.). This will be a three part tutorial. First we'll model the actual book, then we'll model the dust cover and finally we will put on some textures. The tutorial should be easy to follow even if you are a beginner but some basic understanding of Cinema's interface and tool is probably a good start. I've been using Cinema 4D XL 8.5 when writing it but you should basically be fine with earlier versions. The texturing in part three will make use of some procedural shaders (bhodiNUT SLA) but these shaders are not required.
    Part One:
    modeling the book


    We will start with the book. First of all we need to know the dimensions of the book and my usual approach to this is to scan the front, spine and back of the book. That way I get the textures for it as well as the measurements in pixels. This time we will cheat a bit and just scan the front and spine and then re-use the front scan as a texture for the back of the book. After scanning and some Photoshop cleaning I make a note of the dimensions as you can see in the image above. Now start Cinema and create a Cube object with the same dimensions - X: 591, Y: 241 and Z: 899. This will give us a perfect piece of geometry to start our modeling. Now make your Cube editable by hitting C on your keyboard or go to Structure>Make Editable. Then switch to Use Polygon Tool and with the Live Selection Tool select the three polygons of the box shown in the image below (the two short ones and the long one). Time for some modeling. Select the Inner Extrude tool by hitting I on your keyboard or go to Structure > Inner Extrude. Switch to the Active Tool tab and raise the Offset value from default 5 to 10 and hit Apply. The result is not what we want. We want the polygons to stay together so Undo the inner extrusion and then raise the Maximum angle from 89° to 90°. Click Apply and you should get something like the image below. With the polygons still selected go to Selection > Hide Unselected. Now delete the longer polygon to leave you with the two shorter ones. Select both of these and select the Bridge tool by hitting B on your keyboard (or go to Structure > Bridge). Now click and hold on the upper right corner of the polygon closest to you, then drag the cursor to the corresponding corner of the opposite polygon: This will bridge the two polygons and you should have the image left: Now delete the right polygon, the longer one, and then go to Selection > Unhide All. There we have our first rough book cover! Next up is the shaping of the cover and we will do this by using the Knife quite extensively. If you have Mesh Surgery you can use Katana instead. OK, let's get cracking! Switch to Front view and frame the cube by hitting O on your keyboard. Select the Knife and make sure that no polygons are selected. Now slice up the geometry like in the image below (by holding down Shift you will constrain the Knife to 45° angles, making it easier to do straight cuts): Now switch to Use Point Tool and select the Rectangle Selection tool. Make sure that Only Select Visible Elements in the Active Tool tab is unchecked as we want the tool to affect also the hidden points. Select the middle row of points and scale them a bit on the Y-axis. Then move the spine points a bit on the X-axis and you should have this: Now for our first test. Create a HyperNURBS object and drop your cube in it. The rounding of the spine is good but the curve from the "dent" to the covers could use some attention. Select the Knife, make sure that no points are selected and make an additional cut just to the right of the outer points: Much better. Switch to Perspective view again and with the HyperNURBS still active you can see that the geometry still need additional knife cuts to look good. First of all we need to define the edges of the cover and we'll do this by placing cuts very close to the edges of the geometry. Switch back to Front view and use the Knife to place two cuts like this (blue line): And here's a close up shot: The exact placement of the cuts isn't that important, you can always adjust them as you go along. Now stwith to the Right view and add four more cuts, like this: Close up: And here's what it should look like in Perspective view with a close up of one of the corners: We'll leave the hard covers for a while and instead focus on modeling the pages. We will do this with splines and Extrude NURBS. Switch to Front view and frame the cube. Create a Rectangle Spline, make it editable and scale it so it fits snuggly just inside the cover. Select the two points on the left and subdivide them one time using the default value of 2 (Structure > Subdivide). Select the newly created point and move it on the X-axis so it looks like this: Now take the Knife and add two vertical cuts as shown in the image below: Select the single point on the spline and set it to Soft Interpolation (Structure > Edit Spline > Soft Interpolation). Adjust it with the Bezier handles so that it smoothly follows the curvature of the cover (you might have to move the other points slightly as well): OK. one side is done so move over to the other. Select the two right most points and run the Subdivide command again, then select the newly created point and set it to Soft Interpolation. Move it a bit on the X-axis to get a nice curve like this: Now switch to Right view, select the Use Model Tool and move the spline to the end of the covers, like this: Create an Extrude NURBS and drop the spline in that. Our spline is already facing the Z-axis so simply increase the default value of 20 for the Extrude NURBS Movement in the Z field to cover almost the complete length of the covers: And the basic book is done! It should look something like this:

    Part Two: modeling the dustcover

    In part two of this tutorial we will be focusing on modeling the dust cover. We will do this by outlining it with a spline, loft that spline, making the loft editable and then dropping the result in a HyperNURBS.
    OK, switch to Front view and zoom in on the book. Hide the Extrude NURBS object that makes up the pages. Select the Draw Linear Spline tool and trace the contour of the covers: Try to keep the points pretty close to the cover but don't worry too much about their placement, you can always adjust them later on. Now select the single point in the spine area and set it to soft interpolation. Adjust the handles to get a smooth curve: Switch to Top view, select the Use Model Tool and move the spline to the lower end of the cover. Duplicate the spline and move the duplicate to the other end, then drop both splines in a Loft NURBS object (red in the image below). IIn the Attributes tab for the Loft NURBS set Mesh Subdivision V to 3 and then make the Loft NURBS editable. Select the Use Polygon Tool, switch to Top view and place two knife cuts along the edges. Then switch to Front view and place one cut on each of the flaps: (I've coloured the cover green, the dust cover red and the cuts yellow so I can better see what's going on. It's not necessary to do this but it has some benefits as we will see shortly.) Basically you want a rather thin band of polygons running along all edges, otherwise the dust cover would loose to much of its shape once we drop it in a Hyper NURBS, which is our next step. Create a Hyper NURBS and drop the geometry in it. Now we can see that the yellow stripes are really stretched, something that will affect our textures once they are in place:
    Left image - Before the new set of cuts To remedy this we will place an additional set of cuts rather close to the original ones. Deactivate the Hyper NURBS and repeat the procedure we did earlier but this time place the cuts rather close to the original ones (I've deleted the colours from the detailed view below to show the cuts better): Activate the Hyper NURBS again and it should look like this - much better:
    Left image - After the new set of cuts As you can see the cover (green) is poking through the dust cover (red) in some places but that's easy to fix. Select the Use Point Tool and with the Live Selection tool select the rows of points that is "inside" the green cover and then move them on the X- and Y-axis only. Continue tweaking the offending rows all over the dust cover until no area of the book pokes through. Don't be overly concerned about moving a row of points too much as dust covers can look pretty beaten up: You might need to add an extra cut along the spine like this (the cut is marked in red): And with that we are basically done with the actual modeling:

    Part Three: texturing


    I will be using a plugin called TexturePlus in this part. The plugin isn't essential for accomplishing what we are going to do but it will make texturing easier. First of all you need to download tex.zip, a Winzip archive containing all textures you'll need for this tutorial. Download and unzip the content to the directory where you have your book.
    Time to start texturing. Hide the dust cover and the pages to leave the hard covers visible. Make sure you are in polygon mode and select the Rectangle Selection tool, make sure that Only Select Visible Elements is unchecked and then select the top polygons like this (marked with a red line): Perspective view with close ups: Now save this selection with a Polygon Selection Tag (Selection > Set Selection) and name it front. Switch to Front view again and select the corresponding polygons on the lower part of the covers. Save this selection as back (polygons marked in red):
    NB: When you set a new selection, make sure that the old selection tag isn't selected in the Object Manager - if it is it will be overwritten by the new selection. A tip is to deselect it by clicking in the Phong or Smoothing tag first. Now select the spine polygons like this but this time use the Polygon Selection Tool (Only Select Visible Elements should be unchecked): Save the selection as spine. Now it's time to apply the textures. Create a new material and name it front. In the Color channel load front.jpg and set the Interpolation to SAT (SAT is a better choice for still images than MIP, which is more suited for animations). Activate the Bump channel and load front_bump.jpg. Leave everything at default except Interpolation which should be SAT. Finally uncheck the Specular channel - this material will represent cloth and as such it has little to no specular attributes.

    Apply the material to the mesh by dragging it from the Material Manager to the covers in the Objects Manager. The material will default to UVW Mapping so change that to Flat mapping instead. In the Selection field type front to restrict this material to our polygon selection with the same name: The material is now facing the Z direction so we need to rotate it to fit the covers. Make sure the texture tag is selected, switch to the Use Texture Axis Tool and then select the Rotate Active Element tool. Now rotate the textue -90° on the X-axis which will give you a value of -90° in the P-field in the Coordinates Manager:
    To get the material to cover the front instead of tiling you have two options: the Fit to Object command from the Object Manager (Object Manager > Texture > Fit to Object), or use the plugin TexturePlus.to fit or not to fit It's not in all situations the Fit to Object command is appropriate. If we use it on our cover it will work out OK but since the actual object (the cover) is bigger than the area we're trying to fit our flat mapped texture to (the selection), it will stretch the bitmap to fit the whole object and thus crop away the borders of it. With this particular texture it will not be all that disturbing since it hasn't got any specific details but with a more detailed cover it could.

    TexturePlus is a very useful plugin. It will take your texture and fit it automatically to your selection. All you have to do is rotate it so it faces the correct direction and then call the plugin, like in this image

    I've found that TexturePlus can be a bit fiddly from time to time but here's how it works:
    * Apply, restrict and rotate your material like we did above
    * Make sure that your polygon selection is selected by double-clicking on its selection tag in the Object Manager
    * Select the material's texture tag in the Object Manager
    * Call the plugin (Plugins > TexturePlus > Fit to Polygons)
    * Click on the selection tag again and the texture should now fit

    OK, on with the texturing and it's time for some cheating: duplicate the texture tag named front and restrict its selection to back: Since the texture is already scaled for the original selection it will fit smoothly with the back polygons as well: Time for the spine. Create a new material, call it spine and load spine.jpg in the Color channel (SAT interpolation), load spine_bump.jpg in the Bump channel (SAT) and uncheck Specular. Assign it to the mesh and change mapping type to Flat. Restrict it to the spine polygon selection tag. You will need to rotate this material as well, so repeat the procedure outlined above. Rotate it -90° on the X-axis (P. -90°) and then -90° on the texture's Y-axis. You'll notice that this will give you P: -180°, H: 90° and B: 90°. This is normal behaviour for the HPB system and why this happens is explained in the manual. All you need to know is that the texture will be correctly aligned with the spine. Finally call TexturePlus or set the texture to fit to the object (Object Manager > Texture > Fit to Object): Now for the rest of the covers and we'll texture this by cheating - again. Drag your front material from the Material Manager to the mesh. It will by default be added last in the tag list but if we leave it there it will completely cover all our selections. Move it down the tag list and place it first:
    Set the Mapping to Cubic and then Fit to Object, make sure you're still using Use Texture Axis Tool and select the Scale Tool. Now scale the texture on the Y-axis until it's roughly the same height as its Z-length (this is to make sure that the texture isn't too squashed on the Y-axis). If this texture wasn't there the cover would be default grey in some places like the rims and the inside. By adding this unrestricted texture we avoid this. That completes the covers, so on to the pages. Hide the covers and make visible the pages. I've decided to show you two different approaches to texturing the pages, one procedural for those with access to SLA, and one using a regular scanned bitmap of the pages. Procedural
    Create a new material, name it pages, uncheck Specular and load a Distorter shader in the Color channel. Then load a Noise shader as Texture (for pre 8.5 users: load a bhodinut 3D Noise). Set Color 1 to RGB: 130, 124, 115 and Color 2 to RGB: 225, 216, 202. Global Scale should be 100%, and Relative Scale should be 1185%, 22% and 1008%.

    See scran grab of the bhodiNUT shader for 8.2 here
    In the Distorter's Distorter channel load another Noise shader. All you have to change with this shader is Global Scale which should be set to 200%.
    Activate the Bump channel and place a copy of the Distorter shader in the texture field (in other words, you should have in the Bump channel an identical copy of your Color channel). Edit the coloured Noise shader so it's black and white and finally set the Strength of the bump to 7%. OK, the shader is done. Drag the newly created pages material from the Material Manager to the Extrude NURBS object. Deafult mapping will of course be UVW so change that to Cubic. Fit the texture to the object (you will have to use Object Manager > Texture > Fit to Object here since we're not dealing with polygons) and you're done:
    So, what's going on here, really? It's quite easy: the first Noise shader provides the visual impression of pages stacked on top of each other and the Distorter makes sure that these pages aren't completely straight. Bitmap
    The second approach is perhaps the traditional one: using a bitmap. First of all you need to make the Extrude NURBS object editable. This will give you three objects: Extrude NURBS and two Caps. Now, create a new material and name it pages. Load pages.jpg in the Color channel and in the Bump channel. Both should have their interpolation set to SAT. Also uncheck the Specular channel. Drag the newly created material from the Material Manager to the Extrude NURBS object. Deafult mapping will of course be UVW so change that to Flat. The material's orientation is wrong so we will have to rotate it just like we did with the cover materials. Rotate the material


    -90° on the X-axis, then another 90° on the Y-axis. This will in the Coordinates Manager give you H: 90°; P: 0° and B: 90°. Finally you fit the texture to the object: Now duplicate the texture tag and assign it to the first of the two Caps. Set it to H: 0° as this will orient the material to face the Z direction. Then duplicate that tag and assign it to the last of the Caps and the pages are done: Now for the dust cover and we'll use the same technique here: set polygon selections and then restricting our bitmaps to those. Start by hiding the covers and the pages so only the dust cover mesh is visible. Select the Use Polygon Tool and using the Rectangle Selection tool (Only Select Visible Elements should be unchecked) select the top polygons including the flap like this (selected polygons marked with red): Save the selection as cover_front. Now select the spine polygons and save that selection as cover_spine: And finally select the back polygons and save that selection as cover_back: Now for the materials. Create a new material and name it cover_front. Load cover_front.jpg in the Color channel (SAT as usual) and leave Specular channel activated with default values (specularity will always be tweaked depending on your scene and lighting rig, so we'll ignore it in this tutorial). Drag the material from the Material Manager to the mesh. Default mapping will be UVW so change that to Flat and restrict the material to the cover_front selection you created earlier. Rotate the texture so it faces the proper direction and then either Fit to Object or call TexturePlus. If you use the Fit to Object command, note that you will have to scale the texture manually on its X- and Y-axes so it covers the polygon selection (with TexturePlus you don't need to as the plugin does it for you): Create a new material and name it cover_spine, load the cover_spine.jpg in the Color channel, leave Specular activated and apply it to the mesh with Flat mapping. Restrict it to the cover_spine selection and rotate it so it's facing the correct dimension and then Fit to Object or use TexturePlus: Create a new material and name it cover_back, load the cover_back.jpg in the Color channel, leave Specular activated and apply it to the mesh with Flat mapping. Restrict it to the cover_back selection and rotate it so it's facing the correct dimension and then Fit to Object or use TexturePlus: And with that our book is done! The book you've just modeled can be used as a basis for more books - remove the dust cover and you have two to start with. Replace the textures with other scanned images, scale the book, dupilcate it and so on. You'll have a library in no time Many thanks Anders :-)
    Once again, here's the c4d-file for XL 8.5 and the tex.zip file containing the textures ...! Go to page > 001 | 002 | 003 < MEMBER LOGIN :
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